Successful Elite Sport Policies: Indonesia at The 2018 Asian Games

Abstract

The government fully supports efforts to carry out the best achievements in a sustainable, systematic, and integrated way by involving all of the nation's potentials and strengths. This study aims to identify and analyze the main determinants of the success of elite sports policies in Indonesia. A qualitative approach with a case study design was chosen in this study. Observations, semi-structured interviews, and document analysis were used in data collection in which academics, elite athletes, and coaches were participants in this study. These findings show that efforts to integrate the success pathway of coaching and to develop exceptional sports achievements at the 2018 Asian Games (Presidential Decree No. 95 of 2017) are managed systematically, professionally, and become a shared commitment. As a result, Indonesia was successfully ranked 4th in Asia with 31 gold, 24 silver, and 31 bronze medals. So that, the slogan "Energy of Asia" has transformed into a generator of Indonesia in successful implementation, achievement, administration, and economic empowerment.

Keywords: Asian Games, Elite athlete, Indonesia, medals, succsess policies

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JUARA: Jurnal Olahraga

E-ISSN 2655-1896 ISSN 2443-1117

https://doi.org/10.33222/juara.v6i2.1327

Successful Elite Sport Policies: Indonesia at The 2018 Asian Games

Adi Rahadian1, Amung Ma’mun2, Berliana3, Nuryadi4

,2,3,4 Postgraduate in Physical Education , Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia , Street. DR. Setiabudi No.229, Isola , West Java Province , 40154, Indonesia

*e-mail: adirahadian@upi.edu1, amung@upi.edu2, berliana@upi.edu3, nuryadi_fpok@upi.edu4

Info Artikel

____________________

Article History:

Received 25 May 2021

Approved 08 July 2021

Published 14 July 2021

____________________

Keywords:

Asian Games, elite athlete, Indonesia, medals, succsess policies Abstract

____________________________________________________________

The government fully supports efforts to carry out the best achievements in a sustainable, systematic, and integrated way by involving all of the nation's potentials and strengths. This study aims to identify and analyze the main determinants of the success of elite sports policies in Indonesia. A qualitative approach with a case study design was chosen in this study. Observations, semi-structured interviews, and document analysis were used in data collection in which academics, elite athletes, and coaches were participants in this study. These findings show that efforts to integrate the success pathway of coaching and to develop exceptional sports achievements at the 2018 Asian Games (Presidential Decree No. 95 of 2017) are managed systematically, professionally, and become a shared commitment. As a result, Indonesia was successfully ranked 4th in Asia with 31 gold, 24 silver, and 31 bronze medals. So that, the slogan "Energy of Asia" has transformed into a generator of Indonesia in successful implementation, achievement, administration, and economic empowerment.

© 2021 Adi Rahadian, Amung Ma’mun, Berliana, Nuryadi

Under the license CC BY-SA 4.0

 Alamat korespondensi: Jl. Dr. Setiabudhi No. 229, Bandung, West Java, Indonesia

E-mail : adirahadian@upi.edu

INTRODUCTION

Each period gives birth to outstanding athletes. However, every athlete always has their heyday. That is a reflection of the coaching and development of exceptional elite athletes. A medal and a champion podium are the rewards of the training process. The hopes and dreams of athletes to present the best performance for their country are proof of today's heroes. Success in achieving achievements plays a strategic role in uplifting the dignity of the nation.

The success of elite sports in Indonesia plays a role in developing and constructing the nation's identity. A strategic role in elite sport can be beneficial by considering a vision to be integrated effectively to achieve goals (Molan, Kelly, Arnold, & Matthews, 2019). In addition, policy directions and strategic plans are a reference in determining the priority scale for sports development (Rahadian & Ma'mun, 2018). Coaching and developing elite sports-oriented towards contextual, processual, and specification aspects are the primary support in achieving success.

On the other hand, there are efforts to strengthen the homogeneous model in coaching and to develop elite sports (Houlihan & Green, 2008). Building an elite sport requires a relatively large amount of time, process, facilities, and budget, but it will be felt further if the achievement of coaching and development of elite sports is not in the corridor because sport is an arena for the appearance and proof of the delegation of a country on the world stage.

Elite sports achievement is a long-term manifestation as an interrelation of national sports development. A centralized coaching system has a significant role in the elite sports system (Hong, 2005). An elite sports competition is used to learn and gain meaningful experience, at least sports values, such as sportsmanship, persistence, discipline, and competitiveness development. So that in this context, it can be interpreted as a process of fostering superior sports aimed at facing fair competition (Kidd, 2008), both matches or competitions ranging from regional to international levels.

The achievement of the success of elite sports achievements is the pride of the country, including obtaining diplomatic recognition, ideological competition, and a belief that the success of international sports provides domestic political benefits, starting from feeling happy, optimistic and having an economic impact, especially those related to organizing elite sports competitions (Houlihan & Green, 2008). On the other hand, the success of elite athletes is the main focus for policymakers in increasing the medal position. However, elite sports management is much broader and goes beyond the so-called Meso-level factor in sports policy (Sotiriadou & De Bosscher, 2018).

Meanwhile, at the micro-level, the development of superior sports to achieve the stated goals and objectives must consider three main things, namely: sports development stakeholders, sports development strategies, and sports development paths which are summarized in good planning (Sotiriadou, 2013).

Thus, the value of national pride and glory can be realized in achieving national sports achievements. Besides that, it has the connotation of an effort to increase the nation's honor. Therefore, sports development is carried out based on the strategic direction of the national sports policy, which is guided by the National Sports System Law, which is the basis of legality as a narrative of clarity related to the ground, function, position, to the duties and authorities of the government to develop sport potential by involving various government, private and community institutions (Kay, 2013) in creating a systematic, sustainable, and integrated national sports order.

Stakeholders can support, encourage, and protect the fostering and development of national sports by taking into account the principles of decentralization, autonomy, community participation, professionalism, partnership, transparency, and accountability. The story of a framework (planning document) to assess the effectiveness of the elite sports policies of nations is significant (de Bosscher, Shilbury, Theeboom, van Hoecke, & de Knop, 2011).

Decisive government intervention in sports is ordinary if it is deemed necessary to maintain the success of elite sports, emphasizing the need for government funding for elite sports (Hu & Henry, 2017). This identifies a possible relationship between what is called input (financial support for elite sports), outcomes (services and support systems), and output (high performance) in elite sports (Liston, Gregg, & Lowther, 2013).

This shows that the performance of Indonesian athletes in international sports from year to year shows a positive trend.

This study presents a new survey of the coaching and development of elite sports in Indonesia, which aims to determine and analyze the determinants of the success of elite sports policy at the national level (De Bosscher, De Knop, Van Bottenburg, & Shibli, 2006). This illustrates the breadth of contextual, processual, and specification aspects, with its comprehensive depth and breadth of coverage as the definitive guide to policy, practice, and research in elite sports coaching and development. Sports Policy presents a contemporary view of how to understand and analyze complex and controversial topics. It begins by examining issues related to elite sports, including in the coaching and development of elite sports. Then discuss elite sports professionally and proportionately.

Based on this, there is a need for updating the structure of the national sports system as a form of sports development. The uniqueness of this study is to measure the medal acquisition (De Bosscher, De Knop, van Bottenburg, Shibli, & Bingham, 2009) at the Asian Games. The positive framework in elite sports has a linkage pathway to inform elite sports policy decisions as empirical evidence (De Rycke & De Bosscher, 2019), for example, institutional strategy development (Ma & Kurscheidt, 2019).

There is full government support, trying to use policies to motivate and reward elite athletes with the hope of achieving the best performance (Park & Lim, 2015). Meanwhile, at the level of excellence or elite athletes, the training process is in the hands of the national training center (Pelatnas) through the PRIMA and PPON (high performance) programs. Several leading sports always make the nation proud, such as badminton (FTEM) (Ma'mun, 2019), weightlifting, archery, tennis, rowing, rock climbing, and karate which are carried out continuously by leveling their coaching system. The performance target of elite athletes playing a significant role in strengthening their national identity (Uchiumi, 2010).

In the implementation of sports, the achievement is intended as an effort to improve the abilities and potential of athletes to increase the dignity of the nation, which is carried out by everyone who has the talent, ability, and potential to achieve achievement (SKN Law No.3 of 2005 Chapter VI article 20).

METHODS

Qualitative research uses a case study method that includes studies on the success of sports policy to foster and develop elite athletes in the achievement of national sports achievements. Academics, athletes (gold medalists at the 2018 Asian Games), and coaches (gold medalists at the 2018 Asian Games) were participants who were taken using the qualitative snowball sampling technique (Creswelll, 2015). Data collection in this study was carried out through data collection techniques in observation, interviews (semi-structured), and document analysis by focusing on actual data types and collection procedures and anticipating ethical issues that might arise (Creswelll, 2015).

Furthermore, data analysis was carried out through the categories that were made while carrying out the coding. The final stage of data analysis is to check the validity of the data called triangulation, which prevents the correctness of the data (credibility, transferability, dependability, and confirmability). After completing this stage, start now at the data interpretation stage in processing the provisional results into a substantive theory using the Nvivo 12 Plus data processing and analysis techniques.

FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION

Findings

Victories and achievements to win medals resulted in rapid progress in the achievement of national sports development. In this regard, (Houlihan & Green, 2008) argued that elite sports systems in developed countries (Australia, Canada, and the UK) are oriented towards four general themes: building elite facilities; support for 'full-time' elite athletes; providing coaching and training, sports science, elite sports health support services; as well as a hierarchy of competitive opportunities that focuses on preparation for international matches. This is closely related to the sports policy factors determining sports success in the international arena as an instrument. It aims to promote the development of theories regarding critical success factors in elite sports policy and a method used to compare elite sports policy descriptively and objectively (De Bosscher, Shibli, Westerbeek, & van Bottenburg, 2016).

A country's sporting achievements are determined based on its national sports system. When viewed, the coaching and development of sports in Indonesia are carried out through introducing sports, monitoring, scouting, developing talents, and increasing achievement (SKN Law No.3 of 2005). The manifestation of athletes' success in achieving accomplishments is one indicator in seeing the status or level of achievement of the success of national sports development. In other words, the success of elite athletes at the 2018 Asian Games is the main focus of policymakers in increasing winning medals.

The policy is a series of government actions to exploit potential and overcome threats to achieve goals (Nugroho, 2014). Increasing the performance of elite athletes is a series of integrated processes. Achievement of achievement and success in sports results from a complex interaction between fully understood variables. Therefore elite sports have developed (consisting of the efforts and ingenuity of athletes, coaches, and sports organizations) to become a public concern involving government policies (Funahashi, De Bosscher, & Mano, 2015).

Indonesia's participation in the international arena is an effort to improve the physical and mental condition of the Indonesian people but also to improve the quality of Indonesia's sports achievements in the eyes of the world. Elite sports provide an ideal opportunity to channel potential, talents, and talents. The struggle of athletes in sports competitions is, of course, willingness to sacrifice their souls and bodies to defend their country and nation. Mulyana revealed the categories of elite athletes in Indonesia, namely international elite athletes, regional elites, national elites, and junior elites (detikSport, 2017).

Not a short time, national and international elite athletes have built a long-term commitment for 10-12 years (Nuryadi, 2012, p. 4). But on the other hand, as a human being, an athlete also needs a prosperous life and a guarantee in old age. It is not uncommon for an athlete to think more about the material in each of his duties. However, there is a change in income/honorarium for the 2018 Asian Games athletes given every month. That is, each athlete gets an honorarium of Rp. 12-15 million (detikSport, 2017). From this point of view, commercialization can influence how elite athletes relate their sport to the most obvious impact of some images of sport as a major source of income (Houlihan & Green, 2008).

To support this, coaching and developing elite sports is carried out through a training center system (Pelatnas) which aims to provide achievement-oriented training groups, further supported by qualified trainers with a long-term training program, where the trainer plays a role in program arrangement to provide support. And encouragement in implementing Life Skills (Petitpas et al., 2005; Jacobs & Wright, 2018), and creating opportunities to practice Life Skills in sports programs (Gould & Carson, 2008; Jacobs & Wright, 2018), as well as support facilities for training performance-oriented for elite athletes to face international competitions.

In its implementation, elite athletes train several times a week and are carried out in the training area using the available facilities. In addition, it is supported by an increasingly complex sports science support team, including physiotherapists, doctors, psychologists, physiologists, nutritionists, and biomechanics experts (Zimmermann & Klein, 2018). As such, the government is now adopting an athlete-centered approach to convince athletes to become full-time players. The programs that the Government of Indonesia includes have initiated; Gold Garuda Program, Mainstay Athlete Program (PAL), Gold Indonesia Program (PRIMA), and National Sports Achievement Improvement (PPON).

Indicators or measurements to determine the achievements of Indonesian national athletes can be seen from the number or at least the medals, mainly the gold medals from various competitions that have been participated. One of the sports competitions in Asia, namely the Asian Games, started in 1951 until the last one in 2018. At the 2018 Asian Games opening, President Joko Widodo had high hopes and believed that the support of 265 million Indonesians was behind the struggle. For the reverberation of Indonesia Raya and the flying of the Red and White Flag, sports heroes from every arena gave birth to victories.

Tracing some elite sports can reveal which pillars are more decisive on the level of success in achievement. In other words, the policy's success can be found, for example, identification of talents, development programs, or athlete advancement. Knowledge to inform policymakers about the keys to effective elite sports policy can identify the most relevant critical success factors in terms of contextual, processual, and specification factors in the development and acceleration stages of the national sports system.

If examined further, based on 9 (nine) pillars (De Bosscher et al., 2006) that the success of elite sports policy depends on the main routes, namely: 1) Financial support; 2) Governance, organization, and structure of elite sports; 3) Sports participation; 4) Identification and talent development; 5) Career support for athletes; 6) Facilities; 7) Provision and development of trainers. 8) International competitions; and 9) Scientific research and innovation.

If you look closely, based on the analysis of the 9 (nine) pillars as a determinant of the success of Indonesia's elite sports policy at the 2018 Asian Games, which carries the four success targets set forth by the government in organizing the 2018 Asian Games, namely Successful Implementation (Funding 24 Trillion), Successful Achievements ( target 16 gold or top 10 to become 31 gold rank 4 top), Successful Administration and Success in Economic Empowerment (initial 5.15% to 5.2% increase 0.05% of Indonesia's GDP). In addition, the role of the Indonesia Asian Games 2018 Organizing Committee (INASGOC) is believed to strengthen and professionalize Indonesia through the development of management and accountability as a sports institution that will be better able to achieve the goals of elite and community participation in realizing the vision of Indonesian sports (nation-branding) in the eyes of the world.

Stakeholders can support, encourage, and protect the fostering and development of national sports by taking into account the principles of decentralization, autonomy, community participation, professionalism, partnership, transparency, and accountability. It also means that early policy decisions can determine future policy options, referred to as 'path dependency' (Houlihan and Green, 2008).

Spectacular sports events at the Asian Games class for the Asian level positively impact the economic sector (Jakarta 22 Trillion and Palembang 18.7 Trillion) and social. Activities like this attract the world's attention because they are included in the category of super mega sports events (Praditya, 2016). The economic benefits of holding major sporting events are increasing in post-industrial countries where the sports-related service sector is an essential vehicle for increasing growth and employment (Gratton & Taylor, 2006).

Another idea that can be developed is that if countries can use sport as a resource, whether for diplomatic, economic, or social purposes, they will be in a better position to exploit the potential of sports if they have assets in the form of elite athletes who are recognized at the world level (Houlihan & Green, 2008). In the sports industry, athletes have a significant role because they are one of the four cores in the sports industry. The four main elements (core) that are categorized as "event experience" in a sports product are athletes, competition rules, equipment, and sports properties (Mullin, Hardy, & Sutton, 2013).

The revival of the embodiment of national sports is embodied in the slogan "Energy of Asia," which was promoted at the 2018 Asian Games and is interpreted as a momentum for the revival of the Indonesian sports world in the international arena. This is the most appropriate moment for the Indonesian nation to show its quality as a great nation, great energy to roll back to the Asian stage and the world. From this, we can see the results of the achievements and medals of Indonesian athletes won by sports at the 2018 Asian Games (figure 1).

Figure 1. Indonesia Athletes Medal Acquisition by Sports at the 2018 Asian Games (Source: Ministry of Youth and Sports, Republic of Indonesia, Report, 2018)

Host countries are aware of this, and it is an excellent opportunity to improve their sports achievements through the construction of facilities that have long-term benefits and impacts because they can still be used for the training needs of elite athletes facing other championships/competitions (Praditya, 2016). In addition to the achievement goals that are the basis for the competition in sports competitions, organizing multi-sporting events is also multi-purpose. The achievements of these athletes deserve accolades as models for today's heroism. Euphoria, a sense of nationalism, and national unity roared along with the extraordinary accomplishments of Indonesian athletes at the 2018 Asian Games (Indonesian Ministry of Youth and Sports Report, 2018).

Meanwhile, the latest facts of the 2018 Asian Games phenomenon record a new history of success in the highest achievement of Indonesian sports achievements, namely winning 31 gold medals and being ranked 4 (participation for 20 years Indonesia has not penetrated the top 10 in Asia). With details, as many as nine gold medals came from sports in the Olympics and 22 gold medals from non-Olympics. Indonesian gold medals were obtained from the sports of Pencak silat (14), rock climbing (3), badminton (2), MTB downhill (2), taekwondo (1), wushu (1), karate (1), weightlifting. (1), rowing (1), tennis (1), sepak takraw (1), and jetski (1).

Table 1. Indonesia Medals in Asian Games (1951-2018)

No. Country Years Rank Medals Total

City(ies) Gold Silver Bronze

New Delhi - India 1951 7 0 0 5 5

Manila - Philipines 1954 12 0 0 3 3

Tokyo - Japan 1958 14 0 2 4 6

Jakarta - Indonesia 1962 2 21 26 30 77

Bangkok – Thailand 1966 7 7 4 10 21

Bangkok – Thailand 1970 9 9 7 7 23

Teheran – Iran 1974 9 2 3 15 20

Bangkok – Thailand 1978 7 8 7 18 33

New Delhi – India 1982 6 4 4 7 17

Seoul – South Korea 1986 9 1 5 14 20

Beijing – China 1990 7 3 6 21 30

Hiroshima – Japan 1994 11 3 12 11 26

Bangkok – Thailand 1998 11 6 10 11 27

Busan – South Korea 2002 14 4 7 12 23

Doha – Qatar 2006 22 2 4 14 20

Guangzhou – China 2010 15 4 9 13 26

Incheon – South Korea 2014 17 4 5 11 20

Jakarta - Indonesia 2018 4 31 24 43 98

Totaly 109 135 239 495

(Source: Ministry of Youth and Sports, Republic of Indonesia, Report, 2018)

Governments tend to justify significant public funding investments based on the arguments that elite athletes produce, and hosting international events have had many positive results. Policy documents often refer to the positive impact of elite sport on society, including its economic impact, social impact, individual development of gifted people, and the capacity to inspire increased mass participation in sport (De Bosscher et al., 2016).

Full support from the government to support the achievement of national sports achievements is outlined in President Joko Widodo's concrete policy by issuing Presidential Decree No. 48 of 2017 concerning the 2018 Asian Games, Presidential Decree No. 95 of 2017 concerning the Improvement of National Sports Achievement, and continued with Presidential Instruction No. 3 of 2018 concerning the Acceleration of Development / Rehabilitation of Infrastructure and Facilities for the 2018 Asian Games. Furthermore, Maksum (2018) stated that three main factors, namely 1, influenced Indonesia's success in the Asian Games) Indonesia as the host of the 2018 Asian Games, 2) support from stakeholders. The primary policy involving the power of management and management, 3) the issuance of Presidential Decree No. 95 of 2017 concerning the Improvement of National Sports Achievement. Thus, these achievements are certainly extraordinary when compared to the achievements of Indonesia at the 2014 Asian Games in Incheon, South Korea, which only won medals: 4 gold, five silver, 11 bronze and ranked 17th and at the 2010 Asian Games in Guangzhou, China, only won medals: 4 gold, nine silver, 13 bronze and was ranked 15th.

Discussion

To maintain and improve the achievements of national athletes, it takes severe fostering and development from the government through various programs so that the successes of national athletes raise the dignity and honor of Indonesia in international sports events. President Jokowi stated (Kompas, 2020) that so far, Indonesia's sports achievements are still not successful, meaning that the methods we have done so far may not be/are not right. Furthermore, President Jokowi also asked Kemenpora and KONI to overhaul the management of sports management completely.

With the management and development of elite athletes, it is improved and synergized between organizations in sports. Then, an athlete coaching system is carried out based on science and technology to be measurable. Utilization of the latest science and technology must also be done. Not only for the development of a science-based training center but also for developing new, better management. In other words, the development of information systems and big data analytics can detect qualified potential athletes.

According to the UK Sport report (2006), the three most prosperous countries in the 2004 Athens Olympics, namely Italy, England, and the Netherlands, all scored well about the following four factors: (1) funding for national regulatory agencies (NGB); (2) providing training and training development; (3) athlete and post-career support; and (4) training facilities. While (Houlihan & Green, 2008) states that the success of American sports depends on its economic strength; the success of Russian sport relies on a lot of resources and experience training elite athletes; while the success of Chinese sport depends on "Juguo tizhi" the support of all elements of the nation for the elite sports system. "

Whereas in Singapore, the Sports for All policy base is a sports excellence strategy that implements successful individual athletes as national heroes and heroes (Horton, 2001; Houlihan & Green, 2008; Teo, 2008). The findings of this study indicate that a country is obliged to pay special attention to its sports system, including Indonesia, especially in improving the performance of elite athletes. Increasing the performance of elite athletes is strongly related to the self-esteem, dignity, and honor of a country. that sport is an effective instrument to improve the nation's quality of life. In essence, building a sport is building a nation.

Thus, sports need to be managed in a systemized, professional manner and become a collective commitment. Elite sports have developed over time (consisting of athletes, coaches, and sports organizations). This has become a public concern involving government policies (Funahashi et al., 2015). To improve the performance of elite athletes, the government has issued a policy on fostering the achievements of national athletes, as stipulated in Law no. 3 of 2005 concerning the National Sports System (SKN Law). So that the performance and welfare of athletes develop and offers support in the form of conceptualization, multidimensionality, and construction for elite athletes (Brown, Arnold, Reid, & Roberts, 2018). In addition, efficiency in implementing exercise programs is achieved through systematic and integrated development practices (Gulbin, Croser, Morley, & Weissensteiner, 2013).

In this study, it was found that the dominant positive role of elite athletes, through the process of fostering and developing national sports, provides momentum and initiates change in increasing national sports achievement (PPON). On the other hand, coaches and academics support applying traditional and modern techniques to prevent or overcome the ups and downs of athlete performance, provide positive feedback, experiment proactively, take on new roles in the team, and encourage athletes to mentor other athletes (Wang, Hu, Hurst, & Yang, 2014).

This is in line with what was expressed (De Bosscher et al., 2009) that if you look at the United States and developed countries such as England, the Netherlands, Canada, and France, it turns out that they have developed a systemic approach in the development of sports achievement in the 21st century. Where the systemic approach includes (1) athlete sports funding support; (2) financial support to national organizations; (3) identification of talent development; (4) career and post-career support for athletes; (5) sports training facilities; (6) national and international competitions; and (7) scientific research.

Finally, the achievement occurred in the 2018 Asian Games. All can learn from Indonesia's elite athletes struggling and motivated to make the nation's good name proud. Athletes donated gold, silver, and bronze. They became the talk of the country thanks to their achievements, with the hope that this study will be sustainable, not only at the level of key policy stakeholders but academics as a supporter in conducting systematic studies on elite sports policy in Indonesia. A series of policy factors clarifies that the various paradigms produce several models that explain the success of elite sports-oriented towards government-funded elite sports, especially in international events (for example, the Olympics, Asian Games, and Sea Games). Elite sports policy is also the authority of non-governmental organizations or private organizations as a functionalistic approach to elite sports (Tinaz, Turco, & Salisbury, 2014).

CONCLUSION

This study has attempted to explore the linkages of pathways in elite sports or the links between policy and success at the international level, given the limitation that the focus is on sports in which government plays an increasing role in achievement. In this case, there are 4 (four) pillars as the main driving force for success (financial resources, athlete career support, training facilities, and coach development) and 3 (three) developing areas (talent identification and development systems, scientific research, and trainer qualifications. ) where the state can gain competitive advantage and advantage. Thus it can be concluded that the first contextual factors in the form of policies with budget support (presidential decree no. 95 of 2017) include efforts to improve and advance elite sports in indonesia. This is carried out by leveling the coaching system and developing elite sports in a planned, systematic, integrated, and sustainable manner as a unit that includes regulation, education, training, management, coaching, development, and supervision, increasing national sports achievement.

Furthermore, sports coaching and development's process factors and specifications include athletes, coaches, sports personnel, organizing, achievement development methods/models (ppon), training facilities (infrastructure and facilities), and sports awards for athletes, coaches, and officials. This is all carried out starting from the stages of sports introduction, monitoring, scouting, and talent development and achievement improvement, which are carried out systematically and continuously (for example, ftem and ltad in weightlifting sports badminton, rowing, and archery).

And third, achievement can be achieved if it fulfills these three factors synergistically. If it is illustrated: potential athletes, then coaching and development are directed by coaches and other sports personnel. Meanwhile, fulfilling the facilities and infrastructure in the form of training facilities and the welfare needs of coaches and athletes is a top priority for the government through the koni and the main sport branches.

Furthermore, to see and evaluate the results of coaching, it is necessary to carry out trials through competition opportunities, both domestic and overseas match trials which aim to measure competitiveness and maturity as a basis for updating techniques, tactics, physical and mental competing. Apart from that, the support of sports science to produce the performance of elite athletes has become an arena for intellectual warfare between sports experts and technocrats to collaborate across disciplines in carrying out scientific research innovations that are useful to support the optimal performance of elite athletes.

In other words, the success of elite sports is more the result of a strategic planning process in which the state invests in a blend of the pillars of elite sporting success. In addition, the series of components above can be carried out optimally if supported by synergy across sectors of policymakers to provide adequate funding and use it right on target in fostering and developing elite sports in indonesia, especially for leading sports with the potential to win achievements and medals at the international arena.

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Published
2021-07-13
How to Cite
Rahadian, A., Ma’mun, A., Berliana, B., & Nuryadi, N. (2021). Successful Elite Sport Policies: Indonesia at The 2018 Asian Games. JUARA : Jurnal Olahraga, 6(2), 288-303. https://doi.org/10.33222/juara.v6i2.1327
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