Inclusion in Physical Education in Primary Schools


The purpose of this study was to determine inclusive education in general physical education from the perspective and experience of physical education teachers in primary schools. The method used in this research is qualitative phenomenology. Four Physical Education teachers were the sample (2 men, 2 women) aged between 30 and 55 years and were collected by means of: photos, school documents, field notes, and semi-structured interviews. Bandura's social cognitive theory is used as the basis of the research. Outcome of thematic analysis: engaging in learning, adapting strategies to meet student needs, and moving beyond educational goals. In conclusion, inclusive education in physical education in primary schools is built by dynamic interactions between teachers' knowledge of disabilities, motivation to learn about students, children's needs, and learning objectives.

Keywords: Persons With Disabilities, The Relationship Between Parents And Teachers, Phenomenology, Teacher Perceptions, Teaching Experience


Download data is not yet available.


An, J., & Goodwin, D. L. (2007). Physical education for students with spina bifida: Mothers’ perspectives. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 24(1), 38–58.

An, J., & Hodge, S. R. (2013). Exploring the meaning of parental involvement in physical education for students with developmental disabilities. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 30(2), 147–163.

Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.

Block, M. E. (2007). A teacher’s guide to including students with disabilities in general physical education (3rd ed.). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.

Creswell, J. W. (2013). Qualitative Inquiry & Research Design: Choosing among Five Approaches (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

Depdiknas. (2003). Undang-Undang Nomor 20 Tahun 2003 tentang Sistem Pendidikan Nasional.

Direktorat Pembinaan Pendidikan Khusus Dan Layanan Khusus. (2019). Rencana Induk Pengembangan Pendidikan Inklusif Tingkat Nasional Tahun 2019 – 2024.

Gail McGregor, & Vogelsberg, R. T. (1998). Inclusive schooling practice: Pedagogical and research foundations. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.

Goodwin, D. (2009). The voices of students with disabilities are they informing inclusive physical education practice? In Disability and youth sport (Hayley Fitzgerald (ed.); 1st Editio, p. 23). Routledge.

Grenier, M. A. (2011). Coteaching in physical education: A strategy for inclusive practice. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 28(2), 95–112.

Hodge, S., Ammahb, J. O. A., Casebolt, K. M., LaMaster, K., Hersman, B., Samalot-Rivera, A., & Sato, T. (2009). A diversity of voices: Physical education teachers’ beliefs about inclusion and teaching students with disabilities. International Journal of Disability, Development and Education, 56(4), 401–419.

Klavina, A., & Block, M. E. (2008). The effect of peer tutoring on interaction behaviors in inclusive physical education. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 25, 132–158.

LaMaster, K., Kinchin, G., Gall, K., & Siedentop, D. (1998). Inclusion practices of effective elementary specialists. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 15(1), 64–81.

Lincoln, Y. S., & Guba, E. G. (1985). Naturalistic inquiry. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Meadows, L. ., & Morse, J. . (2001). Constructing Evidence within the Qualitative Project. In: Morse, J.M., Swanson, J.M. and Kuzel, A.J., Eds., The Nature of Qualitative Evidence. Sage, Thousand Oaks.

Morley, D., Bailey, R., Tan, J., & Cooke, B. (2005). Inclusive Physical Education: Teachers’ views of including pupils with Special Educational Needs and/or disabilities in Physical Education. European Physical Education Review, 11(1), 84–107.

Patton. M. Q. (2002). Qualitative research and evaluation methods. Thousand Oaks; Sage Publications.

Qi, J., & Ha, A. S. (2012). Inclusion in Physical Education: A review of literature. International Journal of Disability, Development and Education, 59(3), 257–281.

Solihin, A. O., Ginanjar, A., & Widyawan, D. (2020). Resiliensi Siswa Tunanetra dalam Kegiatan Olahraga. 6(2), 423–438. Resiliensi

van Manen, M. (1997). Researching lived experience: Human science for an action sensitive pedagogy. London, ON: The Althouse Press.

Verderber, J. M. S., Rizzo, T. L., & Sherrill, C. (2003). Assessing student intention to participate in inclusive physical education. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 20(1), 26–45.

Vickerman, P. (2007). Training physical education teachers to include children with special educational needs: Perspectives from physical education initial teacher training providers. European Physical Education Review, 13(3), 385–402.

Widyawan, D. (2020). Inklusi dalam pendidikan jasmani : perspektif siswa penyandang disabilitas. Jurnal SPORTIF: Jurnal Penelitian Pembelajaran, 6(3), 735–751.

Widyawan, D., Ma’mun, A., Berliana, & Hendrayana, Y. (2020). The Perspective of Physical Education and Sport Teachers on the Participation of Parents of Students with Disability. Advances in Health Sciences Research, 21, 17–20.

Widyawan, D., Ma’mun, A., Rahely, B., & Hendrayana, Y. (2020). Parents of students with disabilities views in learning physical education in special needs school. Qualitative Report, 25(4), 924–936.

How to Cite
Widyawan, D., & Sina, I. (2021). Inclusion in Physical Education in Primary Schools. JUARA : Jurnal Olahraga, 6(1), 64-78.
Abstract viewed = 94 times
PDF downloaded = 0 times